Hepatocellular carcinoma and other liver lesions

Med Clin North Am. 2014 Jan;98(1):103-18. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2013.09.003. Epub 2013 Oct 18.


Patients with cirrhosis are at greatest risk for development of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and should undergo semiannual surveillance using ultrasound, with or without alpha fetoprotein. Patients with positive surveillance testing should undergo contrast-enhanced MRI or 4-phase CT for diagnostic evaluation. There are therapeutic options for most patients with any tumor stage; however, treatment decisions must be individualized after accounting for degree of liver dysfunction and patient performance status. A multidisciplinary approach to care is recommended for optimal communication and treatment delivery. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date summary of the diagnosis and management of HCC.

Keywords: Diagnosis; Liver cancer; Liver mass; Treatment.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Biomarkers, Tumor / analysis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / etiology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / physiopathology
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular* / therapy
  • Combined Modality Therapy
  • Diagnosis, Differential
  • Disease Management
  • Hepatectomy
  • Hepatitis B, Chronic / complications*
  • Humans
  • Liver / pathology
  • Liver Cirrhosis / complications*
  • Liver Function Tests
  • Liver Neoplasms* / diagnosis
  • Liver Neoplasms* / etiology
  • Liver Neoplasms* / physiopathology
  • Liver Neoplasms* / therapy
  • Liver Transplantation
  • Magnetic Resonance Imaging / methods
  • Neoplasm Staging
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / etiology
  • Paraneoplastic Syndromes / physiopathology
  • Prognosis
  • alpha-Fetoproteins / analysis*


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • alpha-Fetoproteins