Tsix RNA and the germline factor, PRDM14, link X reactivation and stem cell reprogramming

Mol Cell. 2013 Dec 26;52(6):805-18. doi: 10.1016/j.molcel.2013.10.023. Epub 2013 Nov 21.


Transitions between pluripotent and differentiated states are marked by dramatic epigenetic changes. Cellular differentiation is tightly linked to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is associated with X chromosome reactivation (XCR). XCR reverses the silent state of the inactive X, occurring in mouse blastocysts and germ cells. In spite of its importance, little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we examine the role of the long noncoding Tsix RNA and the germline factor, PRDM14. In blastocysts, XCR is perturbed by mutation of either Tsix or Prdm14. In iPSCs, XCR is disrupted only by PRDM14 deficiency, which also affects iPSC derivation and maintenance. We show that Tsix and PRDM14 directly link XCR to pluripotency: first, PRDM14 represses Rnf12 by recruiting polycomb repressive complex 2; second, Tsix enables PRDM14 to bind Xist. Thus, our study provides functional and mechanistic links between cellular and X chromosome reprogramming.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Blastocyst / metabolism*
  • Cell Differentiation
  • Cell Line
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cellular Reprogramming*
  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Embryo Implantation
  • Embryonic Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Female
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental
  • Genotype
  • Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Knockout
  • Phenotype
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 / genetics
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 / metabolism
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / genetics
  • RNA, Long Noncoding / metabolism*
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors / deficiency
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transfection
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / genetics
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases / metabolism
  • X Chromosome Inactivation*


  • DNA-Binding Proteins
  • Prdm14 protein, mouse
  • RNA, Long Noncoding
  • RNA-Binding Proteins
  • Transcription Factors
  • Tsix transcript, mouse
  • XIST non-coding RNA
  • Polycomb Repressive Complex 2
  • Rlim protein, mouse
  • Ubiquitin-Protein Ligases