Transitions between pluripotent and differentiated states are marked by dramatic epigenetic changes. Cellular differentiation is tightly linked to X chromosome inactivation (XCI), whereas reprogramming to induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) is associated with X chromosome reactivation (XCR). XCR reverses the silent state of the inactive X, occurring in mouse blastocysts and germ cells. In spite of its importance, little is known about underlying mechanisms. Here, we examine the role of the long noncoding Tsix RNA and the germline factor, PRDM14. In blastocysts, XCR is perturbed by mutation of either Tsix or Prdm14. In iPSCs, XCR is disrupted only by PRDM14 deficiency, which also affects iPSC derivation and maintenance. We show that Tsix and PRDM14 directly link XCR to pluripotency: first, PRDM14 represses Rnf12 by recruiting polycomb repressive complex 2; second, Tsix enables PRDM14 to bind Xist. Thus, our study provides functional and mechanistic links between cellular and X chromosome reprogramming.
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