Lysine acetylation is a reversible post-translational modification (PTM) of cellular proteins and represents an important regulatory switch in signal transduction. Lysine acetylation, in combination with other PTMs, directs the outcomes as well as the activation levels of important signal transduction pathways such as the nuclear factor (NF)-κB pathway. Small molecule modulators of the 'writers' (HATs) and 'erasers' (HDACs) can regulate the NF-κB pathway in a specific manner. This review focuses on the effects of frequently used HAT and HDAC inhibitors on the NF-κB signal transduction pathway and inflammatory responses, and their potential as novel therapeutics.
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