MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are tiny regulators of gene expression on the posttranscriptional level. Since the discovery of the first miRNA 20 years ago, thousands of them have been described. The discovered miRNAs have regulatory functions in biological and pathological processes. Biologically, miRNAs have been implicated in development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and immune responses. In this work, we summarize the role of miRNA in biological processes taking into account the various areas named above.