The possible role of leukotriene D4 (LTD4) in nasal allergy was investigated in healthy volunteers. Nasal blood flow, nasal airway resistance, nasal discharge and nasal itching and sneezing were examined. LTD4 was found to induce a dose-response related increase in nasal mucosal blood flow as measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry. Histamine exhibited similar effects on blood flow in the same concentration range. Nasal airway resistance as recorded by rhinomanometry, increased in a dose-related manner after topical LTD4. Nasal secretion was obtained by nasal lavage and estimated from a dilution principle. Topical LTD4 did not increase the amount of nasal secretion, whereas a dose-related increase was found after topical histamine. LTD4 did not cause itching, sneezing or other irritative symptoms. In conclusion, LTD4 may play a role in nasal allergy by increasing blood flow and nasal airway resistance. Itching, sneezing and discharge, however, are apparently not caused by LTD4 but can be accounted for by the release of histamine or other mediators.