Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in France, 2012

J Antimicrob Chemother. 2014 Mar;69(3):623-7. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkt433. Epub 2013 Nov 24.


Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 1485) were received at the French Associated National Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance in 2012 and were characterized for their mechanism of resistance to carbapenems.

Methods: Carbapenemase production was detected using the biochemical-based Carba NP test, based on the detection of in vitro hydrolysis of imipenem. All isolates with a positive Carba NP test result were characterized by PCR and sequencing.

Results: Carbapenemase production was identified in 23.1% of the isolates. The main carbapenemase type identified was OXA-48 and derivatives (75.5%). An overseas source was clearly demonstrated for only 27.6% of the isolates.

Conclusions: OXA-48 and derivatives are now the most prevalent carbapenemases in France, with a possible spread of these producers in the community.

Keywords: Carba NP test; K. pneumoniae; NDM; OXA-48; antibiotics; resistance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / pharmacology
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Carbapenems / pharmacology
  • DNA, Bacterial / chemistry
  • DNA, Bacterial / genetics
  • Enterobacteriaceae / enzymology*
  • Enterobacteriaceae / genetics
  • Enterobacteriaceae / isolation & purification
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / epidemiology*
  • Enterobacteriaceae Infections / microbiology*
  • France / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • beta-Lactam Resistance
  • beta-Lactamases / genetics
  • beta-Lactamases / metabolism*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents
  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Carbapenems
  • DNA, Bacterial
  • beta-Lactamases
  • carbapenemase