Objectives: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae isolates (n = 1485) were received at the French Associated National Reference Center for Antibiotic Resistance in 2012 and were characterized for their mechanism of resistance to carbapenems.
Methods: Carbapenemase production was detected using the biochemical-based Carba NP test, based on the detection of in vitro hydrolysis of imipenem. All isolates with a positive Carba NP test result were characterized by PCR and sequencing.
Results: Carbapenemase production was identified in 23.1% of the isolates. The main carbapenemase type identified was OXA-48 and derivatives (75.5%). An overseas source was clearly demonstrated for only 27.6% of the isolates.
Conclusions: OXA-48 and derivatives are now the most prevalent carbapenemases in France, with a possible spread of these producers in the community.
Keywords: Carba NP test; K. pneumoniae; NDM; OXA-48; antibiotics; resistance.