Chronic kidney disease, albuminuria and socioeconomic status in the Health Surveys for England 2009 and 2010

J Public Health (Oxf). 2014 Dec;36(4):577-86. doi: 10.1093/pubmed/fdt117. Epub 2013 Nov 25.


Background: Renal replacement therapy rates are inversely related to socioeconomic status (SES) in developed countries. The relationship between chronic kidney disease (CKD) and SES is less clear. This study examined the relationships between SES and CKD and albuminuria in England.

Methods: Data from the Health Survey for England 2009 and 2010 were combined. The prevalence of CKD 3-5 and albuminuria was calculated, and logistic regression used to determine their association with five individual-level measures and one area-level measure of SES.

Results: The prevalence of CKD 3-5 was 5.2% and albuminuria 8.0%. Age-sex-adjusted CKD 3-5 was associated with lack of qualifications [odds ratio (OR) 2.27 (95% confidence interval 1.40-3.69)], low income [OR 1.50 (1.02-2.21)] and renting tenure [OR 1.36 (1.01-1.84)]. Only tenure remained significant in fully adjusted models suggesting that co-variables were on the causal pathway. Albuminuria remained associated with several SES measures on full adjustment: low income [OR 1.55 (1.14-2.11)], no vehicle [OR 1.38 (1.05-1.81)], renting [OR 1.31 [1.03-1.67)] and most deprived area-level quintile [OR 1.55 (1.07-2.25)].

Conclusions: CKD 3-5 and albuminuria were associated with low SES using several measures. For albuminuria this was not explained by known measured causal factors.

Keywords: chronic kidney disease; epidemiology; socioeconomic factors.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Aged
  • Albuminuria / complications
  • Albuminuria / epidemiology*
  • Albuminuria / urine
  • Creatinine / blood
  • England / epidemiology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group / statistics & numerical data
  • Female
  • Health Status Disparities*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Logistic Models
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / diagnosis
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Social Class
  • Socioeconomic Factors
  • Young Adult


  • Creatinine