Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
Clinical Trial
. 2013 Nov 27;12:155.
doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-155.

A Randomized 3×3 Crossover Study to Evaluate the Effect of Hass Avocado Intake on Post-Ingestive Satiety, Glucose and Insulin Levels, and Subsequent Energy Intake in Overweight Adults

Affiliations
Free PMC article
Clinical Trial

A Randomized 3×3 Crossover Study to Evaluate the Effect of Hass Avocado Intake on Post-Ingestive Satiety, Glucose and Insulin Levels, and Subsequent Energy Intake in Overweight Adults

Michelle Wien et al. Nutr J. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

Background: The behavioral outcome of food ingestion is a complex process that involves psychological and biological factors. Avocados are nutrient dense with properties that may favorably impact energy balance. This study sought to evaluate if incorporating approximately one half of a Hass avocado by addition or inclusion into a lunch meal will influence post-ingestive satiety, glucose and insulin response, and subsequent energy intake among overweight adults.

Methods: This was a randomized 3×3 single-blind crossover design study with 26 healthy overweight adults (mean ±SD age 40.8±11.0 years and BMI 28.1±2.4 kg/m²). Participants consumed a standardized breakfast followed by 1 of 3 lunch test meals [Control (C), avocado-free; Avocado Inclusive (AI); and, Avocado Added (AA)]. Participants rated five appetite sensations using a visual analog scale (VAS) before lunch and at specific intervals over 5 hours following the start of the test meal. Blood glucose and insulin were measured before lunch and at specific intervals over 3 hours following the start of the test meal. Mixed models were used to compare differences among the 3 test meals, and the area under the curve (AUC(0-xh)) was computed for the VAS and biological measures.

Results: There were significant differences in the AUC(0-5h) for the self-reported feelings of satisfaction (P=0.04) and desire to eat (P=0.05) in the mixed model analysis. Compared to the C test meal, the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 23% (P=0.05) and decreased the desire to eat by 28% (P=0.04) for the AUC(0-5h). For the AUC(0-3h), the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 26% (P=0.02) and decreased the desire to eat by 40% (P=0.01) as compared to the C test meal. Compared to the AI meal, the AUC(0-3h) for blood insulin was higher in the C and AA meals (P=0.04 and P=0.05, respectively).

Conclusions: The addition of approximately one half of a Hass avocado at a lunch meal can influence post-ingestive satiety over a subsequent 3 and 5 hour period in overweight adults. A caveat to these findings is that the avocado contained an additional 112 kcal, which may have accounted for the observed increase in satisfaction and decreased desire to eat. Future trials are warranted to evaluate the effects of avocado intake on weight management in adults of varying BMIs and among insulin resistant individuals.

Figures

Figure 1
Figure 1
Blood glucose and insulin levels after consumption of the 3 lunch test meals. Three-hour area under the curve AUC(0-3h) based on difference from baseline (time 0) is shown as an insert. Compared to the AI test meal, the blood insulin was higher in the C and AA test meals (P = 0.04 and P = 0.05, respectively).
Figure 2
Figure 2
Ratings for the five visual analog scale questions after consumption of the 3 lunch test meals. Five-hour area under the curve AUC(0-5h) based on difference from baseline (time 0) is shown as an insert. Compared to the C test meal, the AA test meal increased satisfaction by 23% (P = 0.05) and decreased the desire to eat by 28% (P = 0.04).

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 10 articles

See all "Cited by" articles

References

    1. Giskes K, van Lenthe F, Avendano-Pabon M, Brug J. A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments? Obes Rev. 2011;12:e95–e106. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00769.x. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Ouyang H, Yin J, Chen JD. Gastric or intestinal electrical stimulation-induced increase in gastric volume is correlated with reduced food intake. Scand J Gastroenterol. 2006;41:1261–1266. doi: 10.1080/00365520600708008. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Rolls BJ. The relationship between dietary energy density and energy intake. Physiol Behav. 2009;97:609–615. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2009.03.011. - DOI - PMC - PubMed
    1. Jones PJ, Schoeller DA. Polyunsaturated:saturated ratio of diet fat influences energy substrate utilization in the human. Metabolism. 1988;37:145–151. doi: 10.1016/S0026-0495(98)90009-9. - DOI - PubMed
    1. Piers LS, Walker KZ, Stoney RM, Soares MJ, O'Dea K. The influence of the type of dietary fat on postprandial fat oxidation rates: monounsaturated (olive oil) vs saturated fat (cream) Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002;26:814–821. - PubMed

Publication types

MeSH terms

Feedback