O-linked β-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) site thr-87 regulates synapsin I localization to synapses and size of the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles

J Biol Chem. 2014 Feb 7;289(6):3602-12. doi: 10.1074/jbc.M113.512814. Epub 2013 Nov 26.

Abstract

O-GlcNAc is a carbohydrate modification found on cytosolic and nuclear proteins. Our previous findings implicated O-GlcNAc in hippocampal presynaptic plasticity. An important mechanism in presynaptic plasticity is the establishment of the reserve pool of synaptic vesicles (RPSV). Dynamic association of synapsin I with synaptic vesicles (SVs) regulates the size and release of RPSV. Disruption of synapsin I function results in reduced size of the RPSV, increased synaptic depression, memory deficits, and epilepsy. Here, we investigate whether O-GlcNAc directly regulates synapsin I function in presynaptic plasticity. We found that synapsin I is modified by O-GlcNAc during hippocampal synaptogenesis in the rat. We identified three novel O-GlcNAc sites on synapsin I, two of which are known Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II phosphorylation sites. All O-GlcNAc sites mapped within the regulatory regions on synapsin I. Expression of synapsin I where a single O-GlcNAc site Thr-87 was mutated to alanine in primary hippocampal neurons dramatically increased localization of synapsin I to synapses, increased density of SV clusters along axons, and the size of the RPSV, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of synapsin I at Thr-87 may be a mechanism to modulate presynaptic plasticity. Thr-87 is located within an amphipathic lipid-packing sensor (ALPS) motif, which participates in targeting of synapsin I to synapses by contributing to the binding of synapsin I to SVs. We discuss the possibility that O-GlcNAcylation of Thr-87 interferes with folding of the ALPS motif, providing a means for regulating the association of synapsin I with SVs as a mechanism contributing to synapsin I localization and RPSV generation.

Keywords: Neurobiology; O-GlcNAc; Signal Transduction; Synapses; Synaptic Plasticity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acetylglucosamine / genetics
  • Acetylglucosamine / metabolism*
  • Amino Acid Motifs
  • Animals
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / genetics
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2 / metabolism
  • Glycosylation
  • Hippocampus / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Protein Folding*
  • Protein Transport / physiology
  • Rats
  • Synapsins / genetics
  • Synapsins / metabolism*
  • Synaptic Vesicles / genetics
  • Synaptic Vesicles / metabolism*

Substances

  • Synapsins
  • Calcium-Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase Type 2
  • Acetylglucosamine