Background: Three-dimensional (3D) wing computed tomography (CT) showed a high inter-rater reliability in assessing scapular dyskinesis.
Methods: The 330 scapular movements of 165 patients were classified into 4 types by 7 blinded observers. Then, 3D wing CT was performed with patients prone, and 4 blinded observers measured 5 angles, consisting of upward rotation (UR) superior translation (ST), anterior tilting (AT), protraction (PRO), and internal rotation (IR). The inter-rater reliability (IRR) of 2 methods was calculated, and cutoff values were determined for the 5 angles on the 3D wing CT images.
Results: The IRR was 0.783 for the observational method of scapular dyskinesis and 0.981 for 3D wing CT in the prone position. UR and ST angles were significantly larger in type 3 more than in the other types (P < .001, P < .001), and the AT angle showed a similar pattern in type 1 (P < .001). The PRO angle was significantly larger in types 1, 2, and 3 more than in type 4 (P < .001, P < .001, P = .013), and the IR angle was significantly larger in type 2 more than in the other types (P < .001). The cutoff values of the 5 angles were UR, 117°; ST, 90°; AT, 8°; PRO, 99°; and IR, 51°. The UR angle showed a significant correlation with glenohumeral internal rotation deficit (odds ratio, 0.436; P = .029) and the IR angle with MDI (odds ratio, 8.947; P = .048).
Conclusion: The patients with a high UR angle showed a low rate of glenohumeral internal rotation deficit and those with a high IR angle had a high rate of the MDI in affected shoulder by the determinant of the cutoff value of the 5 angles.
Level of evidence: Level III, development of diagnostic criteria with nonconsecutive patients, diagnostic study.
Keywords: 3D wing CT; Scapular dyskinesis; concomitant disease; cutoff value; inter-rater reliability; observational method; prone position.
Copyright © 2014 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.