Background: Scoliosis is the deviation in the normal vertical spine. Although there are numerous studies available about treatment approaches for scoliosis, the numbers of studies that talk about its etiology and pathology are limited.
Objective: Aim of this study was to discuss the different types of scoliosis; its curves and etiological theories; and to note their implication on its treatment.
Methods: We examined various electronic databases including Pub MED, Medline, Cinhal, Cochrane library and Google scholar using key words "scoliosis", "etiology", "pathology" and "conservative treatment". References of obtained articles were also examined for cross references. The search was limited to articles in English language.
Results: A total of 145 papers, about Prevalence, History, Symptoms, classification, Biomechanics, Pathogenesis, Kinematics and Treatment of scoliosis were identified to be relevant.
Conclusion: To choose the appropriate treatment approach for scoliosis we need to understand its etiology and pathogenesis first. Early intervention with conservative treatment like physiotherapy and bracing can prevent surgery.
Keywords: Scoliosis; conservative treatment; etiology; pathology.