Development and use of a high-fidelity simulator for fetal endotracheal balloon occlusion (FETO) insertion and removal

Prenat Diagn. 2014 Feb;34(2):180-4. doi: 10.1002/pd.4284. Epub 2013 Dec 27.


Objectives The objective of this article is to describe the development of an anatomically accurate simulator in order to aid the training of a perinatal team in the insertion and removal of a fetal endoscopic tracheal occlusion (FETO) balloon in the management of prenatally diagnosed congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Methods An experienced perinatal team collaborated with a medical sculptor to design a fetal model for the FETO procedure. Measurements derived from 28-week fetal magnetic resonance imaging were used in the development of an anatomically precise simulated airway within a silicone rubber preterm fetal model. Clinician feedback was then used to guide multiple iterations of the model with serial improvements in the anatomic accuracy of the simulator airway. Results An appropriately sized preterm fetal mannequin with a high-fidelity airway was developed. The team used this model to develop surgical skills with balloon insertion, and removal, and to prepare the team for an integrated response to unanticipated delivery with the FETO balloon still in situ. Conclusions This fetal mannequin aided in the ability of a fetal therapy unit to offer the FETO procedure at their center for the first time. This model may be of benefit to other perinatal centers planning to offer this procedure.

MeSH terms

  • Airway Extubation / methods*
  • Balloon Occlusion / methods*
  • Female
  • Fetal Therapies
  • Fetoscopy / methods*
  • Hernias, Diaphragmatic, Congenital / surgery*
  • Humans
  • Intubation, Intratracheal / methods*
  • Manikins*
  • Models, Anatomic
  • Pregnancy
  • Trachea / surgery*