Context and objective: Paraoxonase 1 (PON1), an enzyme associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-PON1), is reported to have antioxidant and cardioprotective properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of anthocyanins on the HDL-PON1 activity and cholesterol efflux capacity in hypercholesterolemic subjects.
Design and participants: A total of 122 hypercholesterolemic subjects were given 160 mg of anthocyanins twice daily or placebo (n = 61 of each group) for 24 weeks in a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Participants and investigators were masked to treatment allocation.
Results: Anthocyanin consumption significantly increased HDL cholesterol and decreased low -density lipoprotein cholesterol concentrations compared with placebo (P < .018 and P < .001, respectively). Anthocyanin supplementation also increased the activity of HDL-PON1 compared with placebo (P < .001). Furthermore, cholesterol efflux capacity was increased more in the anthocyanin group (20.0% increase) than in the placebo group (0.2% increase) (P < .001). The negative correlations established between HDL-PON1 activity and the levels of lipid hydroperoxides associated with HDL confirm the relationship between PON1 activity and lipid peroxidation of lipoproteins. Furthermore, a strong positive correlation was noted between increased HDL-PON1 activity and improved cholesterol efflux capacity both before and after adjustment for HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein AI in anthocyanin-treated subjects (both P < .001). Inhibition of HDL-PON1 activity strongly prevented the antioxidant ability of HDL and attenuated the cholesterol efflux capacity of subjects from anthocyanin group.
Conclusions: Our observations suggest that the alterations of PON1 activity by anthocyanin observed in hypercholesterolemic HDL reflect a shift to an improvement of cholesterol efflux capacity of HDL and may provide a link between anthocyanin and cardioprotective effects.