Lifestyle, environment, and male reproductive health

Urol Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;41(1):55-66. doi: 10.1016/j.ucl.2013.08.017. Epub 2013 Sep 26.


A large number of environmental and lifestyle factors may negatively affect spermatogenesis and male fertility. This article enumerates the current state of knowledge regarding those that have been identified, and extrapolates the predicted magnitude of these effects over the next 20 years based on current societal trends. However, it is likely that additional factors have yet to be recognized. Additional research is needed to further define and clarify environmental factors that affect male fertility in order to mitigate their effects.

Keywords: Environment; Lifestyle; Male fertility; Reproduction; Semen analysis; Sperm parameters.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alcoholism / physiopathology
  • Anabolic Agents / adverse effects
  • Cell Phone
  • Conservation of Natural Resources
  • Diet
  • Environment*
  • Exercise
  • Fertility / physiology*
  • Hot Temperature / adverse effects
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Male
  • Marijuana Smoking / physiopathology
  • Obesity / physiopathology
  • Opiate Alkaloids / adverse effects
  • Risk Factors
  • Smoking / physiopathology
  • Stress, Psychological


  • Anabolic Agents
  • Opiate Alkaloids