Sjögren's syndrome: an update on epidemiology and current insights on pathophysiology

Oral Maxillofac Surg Clin North Am. 2014 Feb;26(1):1-12. doi: 10.1016/j.coms.2013.09.002.


Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is an autoimmune chronic inflammatory disorder affecting 0.2% to 3.0% of the population, with a 9:1 female to male ratio. Features are oral and ocular dryness, local and systemic autoantibody production, and progressive focal mononuclear cell infiltration in the affected salivary and lacrimal glands. Lymphoma is the most severe complication of pSS, occurring in 4% to 5% of patients. Genetic studies identified an association with HLA and susceptibility genes in cytokine genes and genes involved in B-cell differentiation. Genetic variations may help explain why disease manifestations differ among patients and supports the hypothesis of certain distinct disease phenotypes.

Keywords: Autoimmune diseases; Epidemiology; Inflammatory disorder; Pathogenesis; Primary Sjögren's syndrome; Salivary glands; pSS.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoantibodies / immunology
  • Cytokines / immunology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Incidence
  • Lymphoma / immunology
  • Male
  • Prevalence
  • Sex Factors
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / epidemiology*
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / immunology
  • Sjogren's Syndrome / physiopathology*
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology


  • Autoantibodies
  • Cytokines