Calcium-alkali syndrome in the modern era

Nutrients. 2013 Nov 27;5(12):4880-93. doi: 10.3390/nu5124880.


The ingestion of calcium, along with alkali, results in a well-described triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal insufficiency. Over time, the epidemiology and root cause of the syndrome have shifted, such that the disorder, originally called the milk-alkali syndrome, is now better described as the calcium-alkali syndrome. The calcium-alkali syndrome is an important cause of morbidity that may be on the rise, an unintended consequence of shifts in calcium and vitamin D intake in segments of the population. We review the pathophysiology of the calcium-alkali syndrome.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Alkalosis / physiopathology*
  • Calcium, Dietary / adverse effects*
  • Dietary Supplements / adverse effects*
  • Humans
  • Hypercalcemia / physiopathology*
  • Parathyroid Hormone / blood
  • Renal Insufficiency / physiopathology*
  • Vitamin D / blood


  • Calcium, Dietary
  • Parathyroid Hormone
  • Vitamin D