The pathogenic relevance of the prognostic markers CD38 and CD49d in chronic lymphocytic leukemia

Ann Hematol. 2014 Mar;93(3):361-74. doi: 10.1007/s00277-013-1967-y. Epub 2013 Nov 28.


The interactions of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells with the microenvironment in secondary lymphoid tissues and the bone marrow are known to promote CLL cell survival and proliferation. CD38 and CD49d are both independent prognostic risk parameters in CLL with important roles in shaping these interactions. Both are reported to influence CLL cell trafficking between blood and lymphoid organs as well as their survival and proliferation within the lymphoid organs, thereby impacting the pathophysiology of the disease. The expression of CD38 and CD49d is associated in the majority of cases, and they exist as part of macromolecular complexes. Here, we review the current evidence for the individual and associated contributions of these molecules to CLL pathophysiology.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1 / blood
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1 / metabolism*
  • Animals
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / blood
  • Biomarkers, Tumor / metabolism*
  • Cell Movement
  • Cell Proliferation
  • Cell Survival
  • Humans
  • Integrin alpha4 / blood
  • Integrin alpha4 / metabolism*
  • Integrin alpha4beta1 / blood
  • Integrin alpha4beta1 / metabolism
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / blood
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / diagnosis
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / metabolism*
  • Leukemia, Lymphocytic, Chronic, B-Cell / physiopathology
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / blood
  • Membrane Glycoproteins / metabolism*
  • Models, Biological*
  • Neoplasm Proteins / blood
  • Neoplasm Proteins / metabolism*
  • Prognosis
  • Tumor Microenvironment


  • Biomarkers, Tumor
  • Integrin alpha4beta1
  • Membrane Glycoproteins
  • Neoplasm Proteins
  • Integrin alpha4
  • CD38 protein, human
  • ADP-ribosyl Cyclase 1