The potential correlation of X-ray repair cross-complementing group 1 (XRCC1) Arg399Gln polymorphism with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) susceptibility is ambiguous. Taking account of inconsistent results of previous meta-analyses and new emerging literatures, we conducted a meta-analysis covering 15 case-control datasets to evaluate the relationship. Relevant studies from Medline, Embase and CNKI were retrieved. A fixed- effect model or a random-effect model, depending on between-study heterogeneity, were applied to estimate the association between XRCC1 polymorphism Arg399Gln and HCC risk with the results presented as odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs). In accordance with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, 15 studies with data for 6,556 individuals were enrolled in this systematic review. For overall HCC,thr XRCC1 polymorphism Arg399Gln was significantly associated with HCC susceptibility in a homozygote model as well as in a dominant model (G/G vs. A/A, OR=1.253, p=0.028; G/G+A/G vs. A/A, OR= 1.281, p=0.047, respectively), but not in a heterozygote model (A/G vs. A/A, OR=1.271, p=0.066) or a recessive model (G/G vs. A/G + A/A, OR= 1.049, p=0.542). Similar results were also observed on stratification analysis by ethnicity (A/G vs. A/A, OR=1.357, p=0.025; G/G vs. A/A, OR=1.310, p=0.011; G/G+A/G vs. A/A, OR= 1.371, p=0.013). However, no potential contribution of XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism to HCC susceptibility in HBV/HCV subgroups was identified. No publication bias was found in this study. In conclusion, the XRCC1 Arg399Gln polymorphism contributes to HCC susceptibility. Due to the lack of studies in Western countries, further large-sample and rigorous studies are needed to validate the findings.