Controlling the Flow of Light Using the Inhomogeneous Effective Gauge Field That Emerges From Dynamic Modulation

Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Nov 15;111(20):203901. doi: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.111.203901. Epub 2013 Nov 11.


We show that the effective gauge field for photons provides a versatile platform for controlling the flow of light. As an example we consider a photonic resonator lattice where the coupling strength between nearest neighbor resonators are harmonically modulated. By choosing different spatial distributions of the modulation phases, and hence imposing different inhomogeneous effective magnetic field configurations, we numerically demonstrate a wide variety of propagation effects including negative refraction, one-way mirror, and on- and off-axis focusing. Since the effective gauge field is imposed dynamically after a structure is constructed, our work points to the importance of the temporal degree of freedom for controlling the spatial flow of light.