Clinical case reviews in multiple sclerosis spasticity: experiences from around Europe

Expert Rev Neurother. 2013 Dec;13(12 Suppl):61-6. doi: 10.1586/14737175.2013.865881.


Spasticity is one of the main symptoms associated with multiple sclerosis (MS). Epidemiological studies indicate that approximately two-thirds of MS patients experience spasticity and, in a relevant proportion of this group, spasticity is moderate to severe. Yet, spasticity remains largely undertreated. The most commonly used oral antispasticity agents (e.g., baclofen, tizanidine, gabapentin) generally do not reduce spasticity adequately at dosages that are well tolerated by patients. This review of MS spasticity cases from around Europe presents current knowledge of considerations for administration of a new agent (tetrahydrocannabinol/cannabidiol-based nabiximols [Sativex®] oromucosal spray) for management of MS spasticity, with the aim of ensuring appropriate and optimal use for best outcomes. Assessment of the European clinical experience is intended to provide a better understanding of the prescribing regulations for MS spasticity treatments, facilitate identification of suitable candidate patients for Sativex and increase awareness of alternative management approaches for MS-related spasticity.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cannabidiol
  • Dronabinol
  • Drug Combinations
  • Europe
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Multiple Sclerosis / complications*
  • Muscle Spasticity / drug therapy*
  • Muscle Spasticity / etiology*
  • Plant Extracts / therapeutic use*
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Drug Combinations
  • Plant Extracts
  • Cannabidiol
  • Dronabinol
  • nabiximols