Validation of a novel protocol for calculating estimated energy requirements and average daily physical activity ratio for the US population: 2005-2006

Mayo Clin Proc. 2013 Dec;88(12):1398-407. doi: 10.1016/j.mayocp.2013.08.019.


Objective: To validate the PAR protocol, a novel method for calculating population-level estimated energy requirements (EERs) and average physical activity ratio (APAR), in a nationally representative sample of US adults.

Methods: Estimates of EER and APAR values were calculated via a factorial equation from a nationally representative sample of 2597 adults aged 20 and 74 years (US National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; data collected between January 1, 2005, and December 31, 2006). Validation of the PAR protocol-derived EER (EER(PAR)) values was performed via comparison with values from the Institute of Medicine EER equations (EER(IOM)).

Results: The correlation between EER(PAR) and EER(IOM) was high (0.98; P<.001). The difference between EER(PAR) and EER(IOM) values ranged from 40 kcal/d (1.2% higher than EER(IOM)) in obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥30) men to 148 kcal/d (5.7% higher) in obese women. The 2005-2006 EERs for the US population were 2940 kcal/d for men and 2275 kcal/d for women and ranged from 3230 kcal/d in obese (BMI ≥30) men to 2026 kcal/d in normal weight (BMI <25) women. There were significant inverse relationships between APAR and both obesity and age. For men and women, the APAR values were 1.53 and 1.52, respectively. Obese men and women had lower APAR values than normal weight individuals (P¼.023 and P¼.015, respectively) [corrected], and younger individuals had higher APAR values than older individuals (P<.001).

Conclusion: The PAR protocol is an accurate method for deriving nationally representative estimates of EER and APAR values. These descriptive data provide novel quantitative baseline values for future investigations into associations of physical activity and health.

Keywords: ACC; APAR; BMI; DLW; EE; EER; IOM; Institute of Medicine; MET; NHANES; National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; PA; PAR; SED; WC; accelerometry-based physical activity monitor; average physical activity ratio; body mass index; doubly-labeled water; energy expenditure; estimated energy requirement; metabolic equivalent of task; physical activity; physical activity ratio; sedentary; waist circumference.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Validation Study

MeSH terms

  • Activities of Daily Living
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Basal Metabolism
  • Body Mass Index*
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Energy Intake*
  • Energy Metabolism*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Models, Statistical*
  • Motor Activity*
  • National Academies of Science, Engineering, and Medicine, U.S., Health and Medicine Division
  • Nutrition Surveys
  • Obesity / epidemiology
  • Obesity / prevention & control*
  • Overweight / prevention & control
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Sampling Studies
  • United States / epidemiology