Three-dimensional facial distances of Northern Sudanese persons from childhood to young adulthood

J Craniomaxillofac Surg. 2014 Jul;42(5):e318-26. doi: 10.1016/j.jcms.2013.10.013. Epub 2013 Nov 2.


No current age- and gender-related normative data exist for the dimensions of facial structures in Northern Sudanese subjects. In the current study information about normal sex- and age-related linear distances is provided. The three-dimensional coordinates of 14 landmarks on the facial soft tissues were obtained using a hand-held laser scanner in 653 healthy Northern Sudanese subjects (326 males and 327 females) aged 4-30 years. From the landmarks, 13 linear distances were calculated, and averaged for age and sex. Comparisons were performed by factorial analysis of variance. All analyzed linear soft tissue facial dimensions were significantly larger in men than in women (p < 0.01), except mouth width (ch-ch), upper facial height (n-sn), mandibular body length (pg-go) and width (go-go). All measurements underwent significant modifications as a function of age (p < 0.01), with significant age × sex interactions (p < 0.01) for all linear dimensions except lower face height (sn-pg). Overall, when compared to literature data for African and Caucasoid subjects, several differences were found, pointing to the necessity of ethnic-specific data. Data collected in the present investigation could serve as a database for the quantitative description of human facial morphology during normal growth and development.

Keywords: Aging; Digital anthropometry; Face; Growth; Northern Sudanese.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • African Continental Ancestry Group
  • Age Factors
  • Anatomic Landmarks / anatomy & histology
  • Cephalometry / methods*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Ethnic Groups / ethnology
  • European Continental Ancestry Group
  • Face / anatomy & histology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Image Processing, Computer-Assisted / methods
  • Imaging, Three-Dimensional / methods*
  • Lasers
  • Male
  • Mandible / anatomy & histology
  • Maxillofacial Development / physiology
  • Mouth / anatomy & histology
  • Orbit / anatomy & histology
  • Sex Factors
  • Skull Base / anatomy & histology
  • Sudan / ethnology
  • Vertical Dimension
  • Young Adult