The cerebellum has been long known for its importance in motor learning and coordination. Recently, anatomical, clinical, and neuroimaging studies strongly suggest that the cerebellum supports cognitive functions, including language and executive functions, as well as affective regulation. Furthermore, the cerebellum has emerged as one of the key brain regions affected in autism. Here, we discuss our current understanding of the role of the cerebellum in autism, including evidence from genetic, molecular, clinical, behavioral, and neuroimaging studies. Cerebellar findings in autism suggest developmental differences at multiple levels of neural structure and function, indicating that the cerebellum is an important player in the complex neural underpinnings of autism spectrum disorder, with behavioral implications beyond the motor domain.
Keywords: Autism; Brain development; Cerebellum; Cognition; Imaging; Motor; Mouse models.
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