Photo-cured hyaluronic acid-based hydrogels containing growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5) for bone tissue regeneration

Bone. 2014 Feb;59:189-98. doi: 10.1016/j.bone.2013.11.019. Epub 2013 Nov 27.


In this study we describe the generation and influences on in vitro and in vivo osteogenesis of photo-cured hyaluronic acid (HA) hydrogels loaded with growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5). Prior to loading GDF-5, we characterized the release profiles from these hydrogels and tested their respective cell viability, differentiation and in vivo bone regeneration. The results from this testing indicated that GDF-5 was observed to release in a sustained manner from the HA hydrogels I-III. MTT and Live/Dead assays showed that the HA hydrogels I-III have good biocompatibility for use as scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. In vitro cell tests showed a higher level of MC3T3-E1 cell proliferation and differentiation on HA hydrogels I-III than on HA hydrogel 0. Moreover, in vivo animal tests showed that the HA hydrogels I and III had a significant improvement on osteogenesis. Overall, our results suggest that the HA-based hydrogel is a good biomaterial to deliver osteogenic differentiation factors such as GDF-5, and GDF-5 can be useful as an effective alternative to aid new bone formation.

Keywords: Bone tissue regeneration; Growth and differentiation factor 5 (GDF-5); Hyaluronic acid; Hydrogel; Photopolymerization.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Alkaline Phosphatase / metabolism
  • Animals
  • Bone Regeneration / drug effects*
  • Bone Regeneration / genetics
  • Calcification, Physiologic / drug effects
  • Calcification, Physiologic / genetics
  • Cell Death / drug effects
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / drug effects
  • Cell Survival / genetics
  • Gene Expression Regulation / drug effects
  • Growth Differentiation Factor 5 / pharmacology*
  • Hyaluronic Acid / chemistry
  • Hyaluronic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Hydrogels / chemistry
  • Hydrogels / pharmacology*
  • Kinetics
  • Light*
  • Male
  • Mice
  • NIH 3T3 Cells
  • Osteogenesis / drug effects
  • Osteogenesis / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rabbits
  • Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Wound Healing / drug effects
  • Wound Healing / genetics


  • Growth Differentiation Factor 5
  • Hydrogels
  • RNA, Messenger
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Alkaline Phosphatase