Objectives: To describe the current management patterns of multiple sclerosis (MS) patients with spasticity in Germany and the impact of MS spasticity on quality of life (QoL) and associated costs.
Methods: Non-interventional, multicentre, cross-sectional and retrospective burden-of-disease study including 414 MS patients with spasticity (age from 25 to 80 years) from 42 clinical practices across Germany. All patients were diagnosed with MS-related spasticity based on neurological examination at least 12 months before inclusion in the study. Three different forms were completed on different aspects of the disease: the patient questionnaire, the chart documentation form and the physician questionnaire.
Results: Mild, moderate and severe spasticity were found in 27.3, 44.0 and 28.7 % of patients, respectively. Associated symptoms and QoL scores were worse in patients with higher degrees of spasticity. In particular, higher mean scores for sleep impairment (mild vs. severe, 2.1 vs. 4.3), mean spasm count (3/day vs. 10.1/day), mean WEIMuS fatigue score (15.8 vs. 19.8), increased walking time (9.6 vs. 20.2 s) and lower mean QoL scores (MSQoL-54 physical subscale, 54.9 vs. 39.5; EQ-5D, 0.60 vs. 0.30) were reported in patients with severe spasticity in comparison to patients with mild spasticity. Patient management mainly comprised physiotherapy (mild vs. severe, 65.5 vs. 85.7 %) and medication (84.2 vs. 64.8 %) with baclofen. The average cost for patients with mild spasticity was €2,268/year, increasing to €8,688/patient/year for patients with severe spasticity. The health insurance costs showed the same trend.
Conclusions: MS patients with spasticity suffer a significant burden because of resulting disabilities and reduced QoL, especially in cases of severe spasticity. Moreover, spasticity causes high costs that increase with increasing severity.