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Randomized Controlled Trial
, 80 (3), 1142-9

Microbial Enterotypes, Inferred by the Prevotella-To-Bacteroides Ratio, Remained Stable During a 6-month Randomized Controlled Diet Intervention With the New Nordic Diet

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Randomized Controlled Trial

Microbial Enterotypes, Inferred by the Prevotella-To-Bacteroides Ratio, Remained Stable During a 6-month Randomized Controlled Diet Intervention With the New Nordic Diet

Henrik M Roager et al. Appl Environ Microbiol.

Abstract

It has been suggested that the human gut microbiota can be divided into enterotypes based on the abundance of specific bacterial groups; however, the biological significance and stability of these enterotypes remain unresolved. Here, we demonstrated that subjects (n = 62) 18 to 65 years old with central obesity and components of metabolic syndrome could be grouped into two discrete groups simply by their relative abundance of Prevotella spp. divided by Bacteroides spp. (P/B ratio) obtained by quantitative PCR analysis. Furthermore, we showed that these groups remained stable during a 6-month, controlled dietary intervention, where the effect of consuming a diet in accord with the new Nordic diet (NND) recommendations as opposed to consuming the average Danish diet (ADD) on the gut microbiota was investigated. In this study, subjects (with and without stratification according to P/B ratio) did not reveal significant changes in 35 selected bacterial taxa quantified by quantitative PCR (ADD compared to NND) resulting from the dietary interventions. However, we found higher total plasma cholesterol within the high-P/B group than in the low-P/B group after the intervention. We propose that stratification of humans based simply on their P/B ratio could allow better assessment of possible effects of interventions on the gut microbiota and physiological biomarkers.

Figures

FIG 1
FIG 1
Inferred Prevotella/Bacteroides groups. (A) The log-normalized abundances of Bacteroides spp. versus the log-normalized abundances of Prevotella spp. for all subjects before the intervention. Subjects fall into two groups, indicated with two circles. Kernel density plots of log-normalized relative abundance of Bacteroides spp. (B), Prevotella spp. (C), and Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio (D) for all subjects. Subjects (n = 8) with no measured Prevotella spp. at any time point were excluded in this figure.
FIG 2
FIG 2
Cooccurrence network of 35 quantified bacterial taxa. The different colors refer to the different bacterial phyla, and nodes represent bacterial taxa. Positively correlated taxa are marked with blue lines, and negatively correlated taxa are marked with orange lines, with the thickness of the line indicating the significance of the correlation. Note that different taxonomical levels are shown. BCoAT, butyryl CoA:acetate CoA transferase.
FIG 3
FIG 3
Log-normalized Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio (P/B ratio) for all subjects before and after the intervention, sorted by increasing the log-normalized P/B ratio before the intervention. The P/B ratios remain stable overall during the 6 months, as only two subjects (marked by two arrows) shifted their ratio substantially. Subjects (n = 8) with no measured Prevotella spp. at any time point were excluded from the figure.
FIG 4
FIG 4
Principal component analysis (PCA) of subjects' fecal composition before and after diet intervention. The PCA is based on relative abundances of 16S ribosomal DNA of 28 different bacterial groups in a total of 124 fecal samples collected before and after the intervention. B. breve and B. eggerthii were excluded from the PCA due to low prevalence in the fecal samples, and A. onderdonkii, A. putredinis, and A. finegoldii were not included. (A) PCA score plot with the average Danish diet (ADD) before intervention (red), ADD after intervention (blue), new Nordic diet (NND) before intervention (green), and NND after intervention (pink). (B) PCA loading plot of the different bacterial groups. The six colored circles indicate the five main phyla (two circles for Firmicutes) and show how the bacterial groups cluster together within their phylum.
FIG 5
FIG 5
Total plasma cholesterol concentrations in low- and high-P/B groups (A) and ADD and NND groups (B) before and after the diet intervention. ADD, average Danish diet; NND, new Nordic diet; ns, not significant.

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