We found previously that stimulation of natriuretic peptide receptor (NPR)-B by C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) in failing rat ventricle potentiates β1-adrenoceptor (β1-AR)-mediated inotropic response to noradrenaline through cGMP-mediated inhibition of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3, thereby enhancing cAMP-mediated signalling. Increased cAMP-mediated signalling is deleterious in chronic heart failure (HF; basis for the use of β-blockers in HF) and we propose to consider NPR-B antagonists as new HF treatment in addition to conventional therapy. Since there is no NPR-B-selective antagonist available for clinical studies, we aimed at identifying a novel small molecule (non-peptide) NPR-B antagonist. An assay was developed and high throughput screening performed on a chemical library of about 20,000 small molecule compounds (<500 Da) to identify NPR-B antagonists based on inhibition of CNP-stimulated cGMP production in NPR-B-expressing HEK293 cells. The screen revealed several potential NPR-B antagonists, of which six were selected for further studies. Three showed selective NPR-B vs NPR-A inhibition and three were partially selective. The compounds mediated reversible, noncompetitive inhibition and most likely act as allosteric modulators binding outside the agonist binding site of NPR-B. In rat ventricular muscle strips, the potentiating effect of CNP upon β1-AR-evoked inotropic effects could be attenuated by at least one of these compounds. We identified several small molecule NPR-B antagonists by high throughput screening and show in a functional heart preparation that blocking NPR-B stimulation with a small molecule compound can reduce the potentiating effect of CNP on the β1-AR-mediated inotropic response to noradrenaline.