Antibiotic exposure in the first two years of life and development of asthma and other allergic diseases by 7.5 yr: a dose-dependent relationship

Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2013 Dec;24(8):762-71. doi: 10.1111/pai.12153. Epub 2013 Dec 2.


Background: Antibiotic use in infancy disrupts gut microflora during a critical period for immune system development. It is hypothesized that this could predispose to the development of allergic diseases. We investigated the associations of antibiotic use in the first 2 yr of life with the development of asthma, eczema or hay fever by age 7.5 yr in a longitudinal birth cohort.

Methods: Subjects were 4952 children from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). Child antibiotic use and asthma, eczema and hay fever symptoms were maternally reported. Atopy was assessed by skin prick tests at age 7.5 yr. The total number of antibiotic courses was considered as the main exposure. Data were analysed using multivariate logistic regression.

Results: Children reported to have taken antibiotics during infancy (0-2 yr) were more likely to have asthma at 7.5 yr (OR 1.75, 95% CI 1.40-2.17), and the odds (OR, [95% CI]) increased with greater numbers of courses: once 1.11 [0.84-1.48]; twice 1.50 [1.14-1.98]; three times 1.79 [1.34-2.40]; four times or more 2.82 [2.19-3.63]. Increased antibiotic use was also associated with higher odds of eczema and hay fever but not atopy. The effect appeared to be associated with cumulative rather than a critical period of exposure during the first 2 yr.

Conclusions: A robust and dose-dependent association was found between antibiotic use in the first 2 yr of life and asthma at age 7.5 yr but did not appear to be mediated through an association with atopy.

Keywords: Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children; antibiotics; atopy; childhood asthma; eczema; hay fever; wheeze.

MeSH terms

  • Age Factors
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / immunology*
  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use
  • Asthma / immunology*
  • Child
  • Cohort Studies
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Immunologic
  • Eczema / immunology*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Longitudinal Studies
  • Male
  • Risk
  • Skin Tests


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents