External patient temperature control in emergency centres, trauma centres, intensive care units and operating theatres: a multi-society literature review

S Afr Med J. 2013 Aug 6;103(9):609-11. doi: 10.7196/samj.7327.


Here we review the available literature supporting the routine and timely use of external patient warming devices of all possible types during emergency department and peri-operative situations, including the role of best ambient temperature, and provides a best-practice statement on the need for such devices. It aims to present a guideline document endorsed by the major South African professional societies in the field of emergency and peri-operative care.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Body Temperature
  • Critical Care / methods*
  • Environment, Controlled*
  • Equipment and Supplies, Hospital / classification
  • Equipment and Supplies, Hospital / supply & distribution
  • Heating / instrumentation
  • Heating / methods
  • Hospital Units / standards
  • Humans
  • Hypothermia / diagnosis
  • Hypothermia / etiology
  • Hypothermia / prevention & control*
  • Perioperative Care* / adverse effects
  • Perioperative Care* / methods
  • Practice Guidelines as Topic
  • Rewarming* / instrumentation
  • Rewarming* / methods