MicroRNAs (miRs) are small non-protein-coding RNAs that bind to specific mRNAs and inhibit translation or promote mRNA degradation. Recent reports have indicated that miR-33, which is located within the intron of sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP) 2, controls cholesterol homoeostasis and may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Here we show that deletion of miR-33 results in marked worsening of high-fat diet-induced obesity and liver steatosis. Using miR-33(-/-)Srebf1(+/-) mice, we demonstrate that SREBP-1 is a target of miR-33 and that the mechanisms leading to obesity and liver steatosis in miR-33(-/-) mice involve enhanced expression of SREBP-1. These results elucidate a novel interaction between SREBP-1 and SREBP-2 mediated by miR-33 in vivo.