Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia: results from the CEPHEUS study in Arabian Gulf countries

Angiology. 2014 Nov;65(10):919-26. doi: 10.1177/0003319713512414. Epub 2013 Dec 3.


The Centralized pan-Middle East Survey on the undertreatment of hypercholesterolemia (CEPHEUS) survey evaluated the attainment of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) goals among patients on lipid-lowering drugs (LLDs) according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP)-Adult Treatment Panel (ATP-III) guideline. The survey was conducted in 6 Arabian Gulf countries. Patients aged ≥18 years on LLDs for at least ≥3 months (stable medication for ≥6 weeks) were recruited. Fasting blood samples were collected at a single visit. In this survey, 5276 (58.2% male) patients were included in the final analysis. The LDL-C goal was attained in 91.1% of low-risk, 52.7% of high-risk, and 32.0% in very-high-risk categories. Goal attainment was directly related to female gender, age<40 years, history of diabetes, and family history of cardiovascular disease. The results of this survey highlight the suboptimal management of hypercholesterolemia across Arabian Gulf countries.

Keywords: Arabian Gulf countries; cardiovascular; coronary; guidelines; hypercholesterolemia; lipids; low-density lipoprotein.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Arabs
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Coronary Disease / blood
  • Coronary Disease / drug therapy*
  • Coronary Disease / epidemiology
  • Dose-Response Relationship, Drug
  • Drug Administration Schedule
  • Female
  • Guideline Adherence / statistics & numerical data*
  • Health Surveys
  • Humans
  • Hypercholesterolemia / blood
  • Hypercholesterolemia / drug therapy*
  • Hypercholesterolemia / epidemiology
  • Hypolipidemic Agents / administration & dosage*
  • Lipids / blood
  • Male
  • Medication Adherence
  • Middle Aged
  • Middle East
  • Quality Assurance, Health Care
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome


  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Hypolipidemic Agents
  • Lipids