Intramuscular delivery of adenovirus serotype 5 vector expressing humanized protective antigen induces rapid protection against anthrax that may bypass intranasally originated preexisting adenovirus immunity

Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Feb;21(2):156-64. doi: 10.1128/CVI.00560-13. Epub 2013 Dec 4.


Developing an effective anthrax vaccine that can induce a rapid and sustained immune response is a priority for the prevention of bioterrorism-associated anthrax infection. Here, we developed a recombinant replication-deficient adenovirus serotype 5-based vaccine expressing the humanized protective antigen (Ad5-PAopt). A single intramuscular injection of Ad5-PAopt resulted in rapid and robust humoral and cellular immune responses in Fisher 344 rats. Animals intramuscularly inoculated with a single dose of 10⁸ infectious units of Ad5-PAopt achieved 100% protection from challenge with 10 times the 50% lethal dose (LD₅₀) of anthrax lethal toxin 7 days after vaccination. Although preexisting intranasally induced immunity to Ad5 slightly weakened the humoral and cellular immune responses to Ad5-PAopt via intramuscular inoculation, 100% protection was achieved 15 days after vaccination in Fisher 344 rats. The protective efficacy conferred by intramuscular vaccination in the presence of preexisting intranasally induced immunity was significantly better than that of intranasal delivery of Ad5-PAopt and intramuscular injection with recombinant PA and aluminum adjuvant without preexisting immunity. As natural Ad5 infection often occurs via the mucosal route, the work here largely illuminates that intramuscular inoculation with Ad5-PAopt can overcome the negative effects of immunity induced by prior adenovirus infection and represents an efficient approach for protecting against emerging anthrax.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adenoviridae / genetics*
  • Animals
  • Anthrax / prevention & control*
  • Anthrax Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Anthrax Vaccines / genetics
  • Anthrax Vaccines / immunology*
  • Antigens, Bacterial / genetics
  • Antigens, Bacterial / immunology*
  • Bacterial Toxins / genetics
  • Bacterial Toxins / immunology*
  • Cell Line
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Female
  • Genetic Vectors*
  • Humans
  • Immunity, Cellular
  • Immunity, Humoral
  • Injections, Intramuscular
  • Male
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred BALB C
  • Rats
  • Survival Analysis
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / genetics
  • Vaccines, Synthetic / immunology


  • Anthrax Vaccines
  • Antigens, Bacterial
  • Bacterial Toxins
  • Vaccines, Synthetic
  • anthrax toxin