Practical applications to modify and control the development of ametropia

Eye (Lond). 2014 Feb;28(2):134-41. doi: 10.1038/eye.2013.255. Epub 2013 Dec 6.


For many individuals, the developmental trend of lessening hyperopia from birth continues past emmetropia towards myopia during childhood. The global pattern for prevalence of refractive errors indicates that the prevalence of hyperopia is low; in contrast, the burden of myopia is on the rise because of rising prevalence and magnitude of myopia. This review highlights the need to lessen the global burden of myopia by intervening with the development and/or slowing the progression of myopia. Further, outcomes from human clinical trials of pharmaceutical, optical, and environmental approaches to control myopia will be summarised. Pharmaceutical treatments are effective in controlling eye growth but are associated with deleterious side effects. Optical strategies that induce myopic defocus at the retina such as peripheral defocus reducing lenses, simultaneous defocus lenses, bifocals, and orthokeratology as well as environmental influences such as increased outdoor activity show promise and provide a substantially risk-free environment in which to control eye growth.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Astigmatism / epidemiology
  • Astigmatism / prevention & control*
  • Child, Preschool
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Hyperopia / epidemiology
  • Hyperopia / prevention & control*
  • Infant
  • Muscarinic Antagonists / therapeutic use
  • Myopia / epidemiology
  • Myopia / prevention & control*
  • Prevalence


  • Muscarinic Antagonists