Big Breakfast Rich in Protein and Fat Improves Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetics

Obesity (Silver Spring). 2014 May;22(5):E46-54. doi: 10.1002/oby.20654. Epub 2013 Dec 6.

Abstract

Objective: Our goal was to evaluate the effect of breakfast size and composition on body weight, glycemic control, and metabolic markers in adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM).

Methods: 59 overweight/obese adults with T2DM were randomized to one of two isocaloric diabetic diets for 3 months; big breakfast (BB), breakfast was rich in fat and protein and provided 33% of total daily energy or small breakfast (SB), breakfast was rich in carbohydrates and provided 12.5% of total daily energy.

Results: Although body weight was reduced similarly in both groups, the BB group showed greater HbA1c and systolic blood pressure reductions (HbA1c: -4.62% vs. -1.46%, p = 0.047; SBP -9.58 vs. -2.43 mmHg; p = 0.04). T2DM medication dose was reduced in a greater proportion of the BB participants (31% vs. 0%; p = 0.002) while in the SB, a greater proportion of participants had a dose increases (16.7% vs. 3.4%; p = 0.002). Hunger scores were lower in the BB group and greater improvements in fasting glucose were observed in the BB group.

Conclusions: A simple dietary manipulation enriching breakfast with energy as protein and fat appears to confer metabolic benefits and might be a useful alternative for the management of T2DM.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Blood Glucose / metabolism*
  • Body Mass Index
  • Breakfast
  • C-Reactive Protein / metabolism
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Cholesterol, LDL / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Dietary Fats / administration & dosage*
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake
  • Fasting
  • Female
  • Glycemic Index
  • Humans
  • Insulin / blood
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / diet therapy
  • Patient Compliance
  • Satiation
  • Surveys and Questionnaires
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Triglycerides / blood

Substances

  • Blood Glucose
  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Cholesterol, LDL
  • Dietary Fats
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Insulin
  • Triglycerides
  • C-Reactive Protein