Oral prophylaxis and its effects on halitosis-associated and inflammatory parameters in patients with chronic periodontitis

Int J Dent Hyg. 2014 Aug;12(3):199-207. doi: 10.1111/idh.12063. Epub 2013 Dec 7.


Objective: A controlled clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the effects of oral prophylaxis on halitosis-associated, immunological and microbiological parameters.

Methods: Thirty subjects were included in this controlled clinical trial (patients with generalized chronic periodontitis and controls without clinical attachment loss; each n = 15). Before oral prophylaxis and 14 days after (including tongue cleaning) volatile sulphur compounds (VSC), organoleptic scores and a tongue coating index were evaluated. The levels of IL-1β, IL-8, IL-10 and MMP-8 were measured in GCF, and also major periodontal pathogens were detected. Data were statistically analysed using anova and paired t-test.

Results: Supragingival plaque and calculus removal with combined tongue cleaning was able to reduce significantly (P < 0.05) the VSC values in both groups (no significant differences between both groups). Two weeks after periodontal debridement, the VSC values were observed in the periodontitis group, but not in the control group, similar to the baseline values. The difference between the groups was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Only a repeated prophylaxis session in the periodontitis group was able to reduce VSC values significantly in comparison with baseline (P < 0.05). Organoleptic scores (10 and 30 cm) were significantly different (P < 0.05) between both groups before and after the treatment. Periodontal pathogens and host-derived markers were not significantly affected by a single prophylaxis session.

Conclusions: Oral prophylaxis may result in a significant decrease in VSC values. However, in periodontal diseases, a more complex treatment seems to be necessary.

Keywords: interleukins; oral prophylaxis; periodontal pathogens; periodontitis; volatile sulphur compounds.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Controlled Clinical Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans / isolation & purification
  • Bacteroides / isolation & purification
  • Chronic Periodontitis / immunology
  • Chronic Periodontitis / microbiology
  • Chronic Periodontitis / therapy*
  • Dental Calculus / therapy
  • Dental Plaque / microbiology
  • Dental Plaque / therapy
  • Dental Prophylaxis / methods*
  • Female
  • Follow-Up Studies
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / immunology
  • Gingival Crevicular Fluid / microbiology
  • Halitosis / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Interleukin-10 / analysis
  • Interleukin-1beta / analysis
  • Interleukin-8 / analysis
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 8 / analysis
  • Middle Aged
  • Oral Hygiene / education
  • Periodontal Debridement / methods
  • Porphyromonas gingivalis / isolation & purification
  • Sulfur Compounds / analysis
  • Tongue / pathology
  • Treponema denticola / isolation & purification
  • Volatile Organic Compounds / analysis
  • Young Adult


  • CXCL8 protein, human
  • IL10 protein, human
  • Interleukin-1beta
  • Interleukin-8
  • Sulfur Compounds
  • Volatile Organic Compounds
  • Interleukin-10
  • MMP8 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 8