Objectives: This study sought to examine the possible drug-drug interactions between clopidogrel and morphine.
Background: Because morphine-the recommended treatment for pain of myocardial infarction-is associated with poor clinical outcome, we hypothesized that morphine lowers the plasma levels of clopidogrel active metabolite as well as its effects on platelets.
Methods: Twenty-four healthy subjects received a loading dose of 600 mg clopidogrel together with placebo or 5 mg morphine intravenously in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial. Pharmacokinetics was determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, and clopidogrel effects were measured by platelet function tests.
Results: Morphine injection delayed clopidogrel absorption (p = 0.025) and reduced the area under the curve levels of its active metabolite by 34% (p = 0.001). Morphine delayed the maximal inhibition of platelet aggregation on average by 2 h (n = 24; p < 0.001). Residual platelet aggregation was higher 1 to 4 h after morphine injection (n = 24; p < 0.005). Furthermore, morphine delayed the inhibition of platelet plug formation under high shear rates (P2Y-Innovance; n = 21; p < 0.004) and abolished the 3-fold prolongation in collagen adenosine diphosphate-induced closure times seen in extensive and rapid metabolizers (n = 16; p = 0.001).
Conclusions: Morphine delays clopidogrel absorption, decreases plasma levels of clopidogrel active metabolite, and retards and diminishes its effects, which can lead to treatment failure in susceptible individuals. (Drug/Drug Interactions of Aspirin and P2Y12-inhibitors; NCT01369186).
Keywords: clopidogrel; drug interaction; morphine.
Copyright © 2014 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.