Persistence of HIV-1 in latently infected CD4(+) T-cells prevents eradication in HIV-infected treated patients. Latency is characterized by a reversible silencing of transcription of integrated HIV-1. Several molecular mechanisms have been described which contribute to latency, including the establishment and maintenance of repressive chromatin on the HIV-1 promoter. Histone deacetylation is a landmark modification associated with transcriptional repression of the HIV-1 promoter and inhibition of histone deacetylase enzymes (HDACs) reactivates latent HIV-1. Here, we review the different HDAC inhibitors that have been studied in HIV-1 latency and their therapeutic potential in reactivating latent HIV-1.