Purpose: To assess associations of the trans-lamina cribrosa pressure difference (TLCPD) with glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Methods: The population-based Central India Eye and Medical Study included 4711 subjects. Based on a previous study with lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure (CSFP) measurements, CSFP was calculated as CSFP[mmHg] = 0.44 Body Mass Index[kg/m2]+0.16 Diastolic Blood Pressure[mmHg]-0.18×Age[Years] -1.91. TLCPD was IOP-CSFP.
Results: Mean TLCPD was 3.64±4.25 mm Hg in the non-glaucomatous population and 9.65±8.17 mmHg in the glaucomatous group. In multivariate analysis, TLCPD was associated with older age (P<0.001; standardized coefficient beta:0.53; regression coefficient B:0.18; 95% confidence interval (CI):0.17, 0.18), lower body mass index (P<0.001; beta: -0.28; B: -0.36; 95%CI: -0.38, -0.31), lower diastolic blood pressure (P<0.001; beta: -0.31; B: -0.12; 95%CI: -0.13, -0.11), higher pulse (P<0.001; beta:0.05; B:0.02; 95%CI:0.01,0.2), lower body height (P = 0.02; beta: -0.02; B: -0.01; 95%CI: -0.02,0.00), higher educational level (P<0.001; beta:0.04; B:0.15; 95%CI:0.09,0.22), higher cholesterol blood concentrations (P<0.001; beta:0.04; B:0.01; 95%CI:0.01,0.01), longer axial length (P = 0.006; beta:0.03; B:0.14; 95%CI:0.04,0.24), thicker central cornea (P<0.001; beta:0.15; B:0.02; 95%CI:0.02,0.02), higher corneal refractive power (P<0.001; beta:0.07; B:0.18; 95%CI:0.13,0.23) and presence of glaucomatous optic neuropathy (P<0.001; beta:0.11; B:3.43; 95%CI:2.96,3.99). Differences between glaucomatous subjects and non-glaucomatous subjects in CSFP were more pronounced for open-angle glaucoma (OAG) than for angle-closure glaucoma (ACG) (3.0 mmHg versus 1.8 mmHg), while differences between glaucomatous subjects and non-glaucomatous subjects in IOP were higher for ACG than for OAG (8.5 mmHg versus 3.0 mmHg). Presence of OAG was significantly associated with TLCPD (P<0.001; OR:1.24; 95%CI:1.19,1.29) but not with IOP (P = 0.08; OR:0.96; 95%CI:0.91,1.00). Prevalence of ACG was significantly associated with IOP (P = 0.04; OR:1.19; 95%CI:1.01,1.40) but not with TLCPD (P = 0.92).
Conclusions: In OAG, but not in ACG, calculated TLCPD versus IOP showed a better association with glaucoma presence and amount of glaucomatous optic neuropathy. It supports the notion of a potential role of low CSFP in the pathogenesis of open-angle glaucoma.