Gallic acid is an active component for the anticarcinogenic action of grape seed procyanidins in pancreatic cancer cells

Nutr Cancer. 2014;66(1):88-96. doi: 10.1080/01635581.2014.851714. Epub 2013 Dec 10.


The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of a grape seed procyanidin extract (GSPE) on proliferation and apoptosis in the pancreatic adenocarcinoma cell line MIA PaCa-2 and identify the components of the extract with higher activity. The effects of the extract were analyzed on the proliferation and apoptosis processes in MIA PaCa-2 cells, as well as in the levels of the apoptosis markers Bcl-2 and Bax, the mitochondrial membrane potential, and reactive oxygen species levels. Finally, the components of the extract with higher effects were elucidated using enriched fractions of the extract and pure compounds. The results showed that GSPE inhibits cell proliferation and increases apoptosis in MIA PaCa-2 cells, which is primarily mediated by the downregulation of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 and the depolarization of the mitochondrial membrane. GSPE also reduced the formation of reactive oxygen species. The component of the extract that possesses the highest antiproliferative and proapoptotic activity was gallic acid. In conclusion, GSPE acts as anticarcinogenic in MIA PaCa-2 cells, with gallic acid as the major single active constituent of the extract.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic / pharmacology*
  • Apoptosis / drug effects
  • Biflavonoids / pharmacology*
  • Catechin / pharmacology*
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Cell Proliferation / drug effects
  • Gallic Acid / pharmacology*
  • Grape Seed Extract / pharmacology*
  • Humans
  • Membrane Potential, Mitochondrial / drug effects
  • Proanthocyanidins / pharmacology*
  • Reactive Oxygen Species / metabolism
  • Seeds / chemistry
  • Vitis / chemistry
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / genetics
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein / metabolism


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • BAX protein, human
  • Biflavonoids
  • Grape Seed Extract
  • Proanthocyanidins
  • Reactive Oxygen Species
  • bcl-2-Associated X Protein
  • procyanidin
  • Gallic Acid
  • Catechin