Impact of dietary fiber intake on glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: the Fukuoka Diabetes Registry

Nutr J. 2013 Dec 11;12:159. doi: 10.1186/1475-2891-12-159.

Abstract

Background: Dietary fiber is beneficial for the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus, although it is consumed differently in ethnic foods around the world. We investigated the association between dietary fiber intake and obesity, glycemic control, cardiovascular risk factors and chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients.

Methods: A total of 4,399 patients were assessed for dietary fiber intake using a brief self-administered diet history questionnaire. The associations between dietary fiber intake and various cardiovascular risk factors were investigated cross-sectionally.

Results: Body mass index, fasting plasma glucose, HbA1c, triglyceride and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein negatively associated with dietary fiber intake after adjusting for age, sex, duration of diabetes, current smoking, current drinking, total energy intake, fat intake, saturated fatty acid intake, leisure-time physical activity and use of oral hypoglycemic agents or insulin. The homeostasis model assessment insulin sensitivity and HDL cholesterol positively associated with dietary fiber intake. Dietary fiber intake was associated with reduced prevalence of abdominal obesity, hypertension and metabolic syndrome after multivariate adjustments including obesity. Furthermore, dietary fiber intake was associated with lower prevalence of albuminuria, low estimated glomerular filtration rate and chronic kidney disease after multivariate adjustments including protein intake. Additional adjustments for obesity, hypertension or metabolic syndrome did not change these associations.

Conclusion: We demonstrated that increased dietary fiber intake was associated with better glycemic control and more favorable cardiovascular disease risk factors including chronic kidney disease in Japanese type 2 diabetic patients. Diabetic patients should be encouraged to consume more dietary fiber in daily life.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Body Mass Index
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / complications
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / ethnology
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / prevention & control*
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Diabetes Complications / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Complications / ethnology
  • Diabetes Complications / prevention & control*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / ethnology
  • Diet, Diabetic* / ethnology
  • Dietary Fiber / administration & dosage
  • Dietary Fiber / therapeutic use*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / complications
  • Hypertension / epidemiology
  • Hypertension / ethnology
  • Hypertension / prevention & control
  • Insulin Resistance / ethnology
  • Japan / epidemiology
  • Male
  • Metabolic Syndrome / epidemiology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / ethnology
  • Metabolic Syndrome / prevention & control*
  • Obesity, Abdominal / complications
  • Obesity, Abdominal / epidemiology
  • Obesity, Abdominal / ethnology
  • Obesity, Abdominal / prevention & control
  • Prevalence
  • Prognosis
  • Registries
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / complications
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / ethnology
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / prevention & control*
  • Risk Factors

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Dietary Fiber