Post-operative acute kidney injury and five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke among elective cardiac surgical patients: a cohort study

Crit Care. 2013 Dec 12;17(6):R292. doi: 10.1186/cc13158.


Introduction: The prognostic impact of acute kidney injury (AKI) on long-term clinical outcomes remains controversial. We examined the five-year risk of death, myocardial infarction, and stroke after elective cardiac surgery complicated by AKI.

Methods: We conducted a cohort study among adult elective cardiac surgical patients without severe chronic kidney disease and/or previous heart or renal transplant surgery using data from population-based registries. AKI was defined by the Acute Kidney Injury Network (AKIN) criteria as a 50% increase in serum creatinine from baseline level, acute creatinine rise of ≥26.5 μmol/L (0.3 mg/dL) within 48 hours, and/or initiation of renal replacement therapy within five days after surgery. We followed patients from the fifth post-operative day until myocardial infarction, stroke or death within five years. Five-year risk was computed by the cumulative incidence method and compared with hazards ratios (HR) from a Cox proportional hazards regression model adjusting for propensity score.

Results: A total of 287 (27.9%) of 1,030 patients developed AKI. Five-year risk of death was 26.5% (95% CI: 21.2 to 32.0) among patients with AKI and 12.1% (95% CI: 10.0 to 14.7) among patients without AKI. The corresponding adjusted HR of death was 1.6 (95% CI: 1.1 to 2.2). Five-year risk of myocardial infarction was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.9 to 8.1) among patients with AKI and 3.3% (95% CI: 2.1 to 4.8) among patients without AKI. Five-year risk of stroke was 5.0% (95% CI: 2.8 to 7.9) among patients with AKI and 4.2% (95% CI: 2.9 to 5.8) among patients without AKI. Adjusted HRs were 1.5 (95% CI: 0.7 to 3.2) of myocardial infarction and 0.9 (95% CI: 0.5 to 1.8) of stroke.

Conclusions: AKI, within five days after elective cardiac surgery, was associated with increased five-year mortality and a statistically insignificant increased risk of myocardial infarction. No association was seen with the risk of stroke.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Kidney Injury / diagnosis
  • Acute Kidney Injury / etiology*
  • Aged
  • Cardiac Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Cause of Death*
  • Cohort Studies
  • Elective Surgical Procedures / adverse effects*
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Kaplan-Meier Estimate
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Myocardial Infarction / etiology*
  • Prognosis
  • Risk Factors
  • Stroke / etiology*
  • Time Factors