The effects of partial use of formula diet on weight reduction and metabolic variables in obese type 2 diabetic patients--multicenter trial

Obes Res Clin Pract. Jan-Feb 2013;7(1):e43-54. doi: 10.1016/j.orcp.2012.03.002.


Aims: To clarify the usefulness of protein-sparing modified formula diet in obese type 2 diabetic patients, the effects of partial use of formula diet on weight reduction and changes in related metabolic variables, and the improving rates of risk factors per 1% body weight reduction, were compared with those of conventional subcaloric diet.

Subjects and methods: Obese patients [BMI >25 kg/m²] with diabetic mellitus were randomly assigned to a low-caloric diet with partial use of formula diet group (FD, n = 119) and a conventional low-caloric diet group (CD, n = 110). Subjects in FD took one pack of formula diet (MicroDiet®, 240 kcal/pack) in place of one of three daily low-caloric meals for 24 weeks. Total daily calorie prescribed was same.

Result: Weight reduction was greater in FD than in CD (week 24: -3.5 vs -1.4 kg; all p < 0.001). Systolic blood pressure decreased significantly only in FD. HbA1c reduction was greater in FD than in CD. HDL-cholesterol increased significantly more in FD than in CD (week 24: +2.8 vs. +0.6 mg/dl, p < 0.001). Among several improving rates (%) of risk factors/1% body weight reduction, those of HbA1c at weeks 16 and 24, triglyceride at week 8 and HDL-cholesterol at week 24, were significantly higher in FD than CD. Doses of sulfonylurea and thiazolidinedione were significantly decreased in FD than in CD.

Conclusion: Partial use of formula diet was much more effective in reducing body weight, and also in improving coronary risk factors than conventional diet in part due to reduced body weight through decreased energy diet intake and due to dietary composition of the formula diet.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Blood Pressure
  • Caloric Restriction*
  • Cholesterol, HDL / blood
  • Coronary Disease / blood
  • Coronary Disease / etiology
  • Coronary Disease / prevention & control
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / blood
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / complications
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 / diet therapy*
  • Diet, Carbohydrate-Restricted*
  • Diet, Reducing / methods
  • Dietary Proteins / administration & dosage*
  • Energy Intake
  • Female
  • Food, Formulated*
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Obesity / blood
  • Obesity / complications
  • Obesity / diet therapy*
  • Risk Factors
  • Thiazolidinediones / therapeutic use
  • Triglycerides / blood
  • Weight Loss*


  • Cholesterol, HDL
  • Dietary Proteins
  • Glycated Hemoglobin A
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Thiazolidinediones
  • Triglycerides
  • 2,4-thiazolidinedione