The purpose of this systematic review is to provide an overview of the surgical correction of the mandible in unilateral craniofacial microsomia (UCM) performed in the growing patient, and its long-term outcome and stability. The following databases were searched: PubMed, Embase, Cochrane, and Web of Science. Articles reporting prospective and retrospective studies of patients not older than 16 years (N ≥ 4) who had undergone surgical correction of a craniofacial microsomia spectrum condition using grafts, osteotomies, distraction, or combinations of these, were reviewed. The period of follow-up was selected to be ≥1 year. After inclusion, the articles were evaluated on short- and long-term outcomes, relapse, and any increase in asymmetry following treatment. Thirty of 1611 articles were included in the qualitative synthesis. Analysis of the surgical mandibular correction of UCM showed that the outcome is not so much treatment-dependent, but patient-dependent, i.e. deformity gradation-dependent. The type I-IIa Pruzansky-Kaban patient had the best results with regard to minimal relapse and/or minimal increase in asymmetry. Single-stage correction of the asymmetry should be postponed until the permanent dentition stage. It can be concluded that in the treatment of the severely hypoplastic mandible, the patient will benefit from a multi-stage treatment protocol if indicated for functional or psychological problems.
Keywords: craniofacial dysostosis; craniofacial microsomia; distraction osteogenesis; goldenhar; graft; hemifacial microsomia; mandibular; osteotomy; reconstruction.
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