Background: The primary objective of this mechanistic open-label, stratified clinical trial was to determine the effect of 8 weeks' sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibition with empagliflozin 25 mg QD on renal hyperfiltration in subjects with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1D).
Methods and results: Inulin (glomerular filtration rate; GFR) and paraaminohippurate (effective renal plasma flow) clearances were measured in individuals stratified based on having hyperfiltration (T1D-H, GFR ≥ 135 mL/min/1.73m(2), n=27) or normal GFR (T1D-N, GFR 90-134 mL/min/1.73m(2), n=13) at baseline. Renal function and circulating levels of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system mediators and NO were measured under clamped euglycemic (4-6 mmol/L) and hyperglycemic (9-11 mmol/L) conditions at baseline and end of treatment. During clamped euglycemia, hyperfiltration was attenuated by -33 mL/min/1.73m(2) with empagliflozin in T1D-H, (GFR 172±23-139±25 mL/min/1.73 m(2), P<0.01). This effect was accompanied by declines in plasma NO and effective renal plasma flow and an increase in renal vascular resistance (all P<0.01). Similar significant effects on GFR and renal function parameters were observed during clamped hyperglycemia. In T1D-N, GFR, other renal function parameters, and plasma NO were not altered by empagliflozin. Empagliflozin reduced hemoglobin A1c significantly in both groups, despite lower insulin doses in each group (P≤0.04).
Conclusions: In conclusion, short-term treatment with the sodium glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor empagliflozin attenuated renal hyperfiltration in subjects with T1D, likely by affecting tubular-glomerular feedback mechanisms.
Clinical trial registration url: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01392560.
Keywords: SGLT2 protein; diabetes mellitus; diabetic nephropathies; hypertension, renal; nitric oxide; renin-angiotensin system.