Report on 23 patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy who underwent silicone oil implantation due to recurrent intravitreal hemorrhages following pars plana vitrectomy. Postoperatively, it was possible to perform panretinal laser photocoagulation without difficulty or haste. After an average period of 4 months, silicone oil was removed from 10 eyes. Subsequent hemorrhages in 4 of these eyes are due to diabetic retinopathy, not to silicone oil. In 6 cases, silicone oil removal is planned for the near future; in a further 7 cases, silicone oil removal has been postponed because of the potential danger of further traction retinal detachment.