Early transplant dysfunction and failure because of immunological and nonimmunological factors still presents a significant clinical problem for transplant recipients. A critical unmet need is the noninvasive detection and prediction of immune injury such that acute injury can be reversed by proactive immunosuppression titration. In this study, we used iTRAQ -based proteomic discovery and targeted ELISA validation to discover and validate candidate urine protein biomarkers from 262 renal allograft recipients with biopsy-confirmed allograft injury. Urine samples were randomly split into a training set of 108 patients and an independent validation set of 154 patients, which comprised the clinical biopsy-confirmed phenotypes of acute rejection (AR) (n = 74), stable graft (STA) (n = 74), chronic allograft injury (CAI) (n = 58), BK virus nephritis (BKVN) (n = 38), nephrotic syndrome (NS) (n = 8), and healthy, normal control (HC) (n = 10). A total of 389 proteins were measured that displayed differential abundances across urine specimens of the injury types (p < 0.05) with a significant finding that SUMO2 (small ubiquitin-related modifier 2) was identified as a "hub" protein for graft injury irrespective of causation. Sixty-nine urine proteins had differences in abundance (p < 0.01) in AR compared with stable graft, of which 12 proteins were up-regulated in AR with a mean fold increase of 2.8. Nine urine proteins were highly specific for AR because of their significant differences (p < 0.01; fold increase >1.5) from all other transplant categories (HLA class II protein HLA-DRB1, KRT14, HIST1H4B, FGG, ACTB, FGB, FGA, KRT7, DPP4). Increased levels of three of these proteins, fibrinogen beta (FGB; p = 0.04), fibrinogen gamma (FGG; p = 0.03), and HLA DRB1 (p = 0.003) were validated by ELISA in AR using an independent sample set. The fibrinogen proteins further segregated AR from BK virus nephritis (FGB p = 0.03, FGG p = 0.02), a finding that supports the utility of monitoring these urinary proteins for the specific and sensitive noninvasive diagnosis of acute renal allograft rejection.