Development of FRET biosensors for mammalian and plant systems

Protoplasma. 2014 Mar;251(2):333-47. doi: 10.1007/s00709-013-0590-z. Epub 2013 Dec 12.


Genetically encoded biosensors are increasingly used in visualising signalling processes in different organisms. Sensors based on green fluorescent protein technology are providing a great opportunity for using Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) as a tool that allows for monitoring dynamic processes in living cells. The development of these FRET biosensors requires careful selection of fluorophores, substrates and recognition domains. In this review, we will discuss recent developments, strategies to create and optimise FRET biosensors and applications of FRET-based biosensors for use in the two major eukaryotic kingdoms and elaborate on different methods for FRET detection.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Biosensing Techniques / methods*
  • Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer / methods*
  • Fluorescent Dyes / chemistry
  • Mammals
  • Microscopy, Fluorescence / methods*
  • Plants


  • Fluorescent Dyes