Picornaviruses have been isolated from a variety of hosts, mainly mammals and birds. Here, we describe the sequence analysis of carp picornavirus 1 (CPV-1) F37/06 that was isolated from an organ pool (heart, brain, liver) of a common carp (Cyprinus carpio). This carp perished after an accidental discharge of liquid manure into a fish pond and presented without obvious clinical symptoms. Experimental intraperitoneal infection of young carp with CPV-1 revealed no clinical signs, but the virus was re-isolated from various organs. Sequence analysis of almost the complete genome (7632 nt excluding the poly-A tract) revealed a novel picornavirus clade. In phylogenetic trees, the polymerase sequence clusters with parechoviruses, duck hepatitis A virus, eel picornavirus and aquamavirus A. The ORF includes 6807 nt and encodes a polyprotein of 2269 amino acids. CPV-1 has a genome layout like that of picornaviruses except for the presence of two aphthovirus 2A-like NPGP sequence motifs: VPg+5'UTR[1AB-1C-1D-2A1(npgp)/2A2(npgp)-2B-2C(ATPase)/3A-3B(VPg)-3C(pro)-3D(pol)]3'UTR-poly-A. 2A1(npgp) and 2A2(npgp) are separated by 133 amino acids. The proteins 2A2(npgp), 2B, 3A and 3B(VPg) have no significant similarity to the corresponding proteins of other picornaviruses. Amino acid identities of the orthologous proteins P1, 2C, 3C(pro) and 3D(pol) range from 16.4 to 40.8 % in the eel picornavirus/CPV-1 comparison. 3D(pol) shows the closest similarity to eel picornavirus, with an amino acid identity of 40.8 %, followed by human parechovirus (36.5 %), duck hepatitis A virus (32.7 %) and swine pasivirus (29.3 %). Both the unique genome organization and low sequence similarity support the assignment of CPV-1 to a novel picornavirus species within a novel genus.