Predictors of mortality and length of stay in hospitalized cases of 2009 influenza A (H1N1): Experiences of a tertiary care center

Indian J Crit Care Med. 2013 Sep;17(5):275-82. doi: 10.4103/0972-5229.120318.


Aim: To study the clinical characteristics and outcome of admitted patients of H1N1 (hemagglutinin -H neuraminidase -N) influenza in a tertiary level hospital, from Oct 2009 to Dec 2010.

Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of 77 confirmed patients admitted in this unit with H1N1 infection.

Results: Of the 77 patients studied, 33 (42.8%) were female. Mean age was 40.88 ± 13.45 years, majority (70.13%) being less than 50 years. Thirty eight (49.3%) patients had at least one co-morbidity, diabetes mellitus being the most common (n = 15, 19.5%). The most common presenting symptom was fever in 75 (97.4%) patients, cough in 67 (87%) and dyspnoea in 59 (76.6%) patients. At admission, mean PaO2/FiO2 ratio was 213.16 ± 132.75 mmHg (n = 60) while mean PaCO2 was 40.14 ± 14.86 mmHg. One or more organ failure was present in 45 (58.4%) patients. Nineteen (24.60%) patients required invasive mechanical ventilation. Circulatory failure was observed in 10 (13%) patients while 2 patients required hemodialysis. Overall, 13% mortality (n = 10) was observed. PaCO2 level at admission (OR 1.093; 95% confidence interval: 1.002-1.193; P = 0.044) and number of organ failure (OR 8.089; 95% confidence interval: 1.133-57.778; P = 0.037) were identified as independent risk- factors for mortality.

Conclusion: Increased duration of dyspnoea prior to admission, pneumonia, low PaO2/FiO2 ratio at admission and 24 hours later, higher PaCO2 values on admission, higher O2 requirement, number of organ failures and use of corticosteroids and delay in specialized treatment were associated with a poorer outcome.

Keywords: 2009 influenza A; H1N1; hospitalized; length of stay; mortality; predictors.